The main purpose of technical education is to ensure that students are qualified and technically suitable for the industry. When it comes to technical education, it contributes greatly to the general education system and plays an important role in Japan’s socio-economic development.
Technical and vocational education is used as inclusive terms relating to aspects of the relevant educational process. The study of technology and related sciences, and the acquisition of practical skills, relationships, understanding, and knowledge related to professions in various fields of economic and social life. In light of this, technical and vocational education is the preparation of people to acquire practical skills and basic scientific knowledge, providing a competent workforce to the world of work and Increase power. People with special skills. As a result of effective vocational and technical education, they are trained and equipped with the practical skills, knowledge, abilities, and abilities required for a particular profession.
Vocational education programs aim to equip students with the appropriate skills, abilities, and abilities as necessary equipment, to adapt to the actual situation of work and to contribute to the development of society. This will help all youths secure their future by expanding their afterschool opportunities. Vocational education can be considered as one aspect of education that uses scientific knowledge to acquire practical and applied skills to solve technical problems. This is the process of acquiring profession-related attitudes, knowledge, and abilities in various factors of economic and social life. It is also an education that prepares students primarily for professions that require operational skills and is designed to develop the skills, abilities, understanding, attitudes, and work skills needed for a useful and productive foundation. I will. It can provide employment to beneficiaries and an important hands-on skills development program designed to provide people with the trained qualities that workers need in the industry. In fact, this is considered the starting point for technological development.
Vocational Education: World vs. Bangladesh
Vocational education is an education system where there is no such thing as pass-fail. Rather, it is an attempt to make a person a competent competitor, where you are either competent or not yet competent. In technical education, more importance is given to practical application than to theoretical study, so that a person educated in technical education can use his / her qualifications to find the best job opportunities. Technical education is also considered very important in the field of employment due to real work experience. If one wants, one can easily take technical education and get out of one’s previous job and do new work and enrich one’s career.
There is no doubt that technical education is playing a very important role in creating competitors in a competitive market. This method is effective and up-to-date along with the equivalent education system. In developed countries in education, we see a broad picture of technical education activities. The journey of technical education started in Germany in 1989. Dual vocational training is prevalent in Germany, which is popular all over the world. Here at the same time a student studies in a vocational training school and gains practical knowledge by working in a real company/industry. Here the vocational school is mainly taught the theoretical part, which is required for working in the industry, and real experience and job opportunities in the company During vocational training, a trainee receives a monthly salary from the company, which averages 695 euros, which may be higher depending on the field of work, as in the case of mechatronics engineers, the average monthly income is 950 euros.
Let’s talk about the Philippines, which is known for its unique features in education. In the Philippines, first 6 years of primary school and 4 years of high school are included in primary and secondary level education. Then there is the tertiary level, where students have a few options – 4/5/6. This program of TEVT (Technical and Vocational Education and Training) under TESDA (Technical Education and Skill Development Authority) is not only suitable for high school graduates in the Philippines, the Philippine government offers this opportunity to the country. Unemployed, financially indigent, those who have lost their jobs for some reason, those working abroad who now want to work in the country. This program is very competitive in the Philippines. It empowers young people to meet the challenges of the 21st-century workplace.
In South Korea’s education system, after graduating from high school, students have three options: (1) they can go straight to work; (2) they can do 2/3 years of vocational training; (3) they can apply to university. The country is currently vocational. Special attention is being paid to increase the amount of education. They have taken a strong program to increase the amount of vocational education to 29% by 2022. The Ministry of Education is also working to reduce the cost of vocational education. Students who went to higher education after completing vocational training between 2013 and 2016. The number has almost doubled.
Vocational education in Japan can be completed in 3 steps. First the students have to complete 9 years of compulsory education. Vocational education can then be completed at the secondary and tertiary level. In Japan, academic study was more important to students and their parents than vocational education in the past. Vocational education was primarily for low grade students and financially indigent students. Vocational training and vocational education are becoming more popular as they become more consistent. It is not only students who have passed school that are leaning towards vocational education; On the contrary, those who have completed graduation and are not able to show proper application in the workplace are also becoming equally interested in vocational training. There are various vocational education systems in different states of America, also known as ‘trade schools’. In most cases, students can pursue vocational education after finishing secondary school. Most of the vocational education institutions are run by private companies.
Vocational education began in Singapore in the 1960s. But then people’s attitude towards vocational education was very negative. Gradually parents began to realize the importance of vocational education. Vocational training is actually making their children truly qualified to work in the vast Singaporean society. Vocational training has become very popular in Singapore since 1992 and parents have started encouraging their children in vocational education. In 2014, 84% of graduate students in vocational education started working in their respective fields within 6 months of their graduation, which has further motivated other students in vocational education.
Malaysia has a vocational education system run by UNESCO’s TVET program. Through the TVET program, students can join here at the certificate, degree, diploma level. They are awarded these degrees, diplomas and certificates from 8 more ministries including MOHE (Ministry of Higher Education). After receiving the Vocational Education Certificate from here, they can transfer credit and participate in higher education.
China is one of the most active countries in technical education. The Chinese education system also offers three stages of technical education – junior secondary, senior secondary and tertiary. In 2001, there were 16,60 vocational secondary schools in China with about 11,742,300 students. The journey of technical or vocational education in Bangladesh started in 1986 with the enactment of the 1st Parliamentary Technical Education Act. Curricula
- SSC (Vocational) 2 years term
- Diploma in Commerce (2 year term)
- HSC (Business Management) 2 years term
- Diploma-in-Tourism and Hospitality Management (4 years term)
- Diploma-in-Engineering (4 years term)
- Diploma-in-Agriculture (4 years term)
- Diploma-in-Fisheries (4 years term)
- Diploma in Health Technology and Services (4 year term)
- Diploma in Textile Engineering (4 years term)
- Diploma-in-Diploma in Technical Education
- Diploma-in-Jute Technology
- Diploma-in-Jute Surveying
At present there are 49 government polytechnic institutes. Of these, 20 are old institutes, which are completely government. There are five new revenue institutes, three monotechnic institutes, 16 project institutes and three women’s polytechnic institutes.
There are 36 private polytechnics. The target has been set to reach 20% of the total students in the country in technical and vocational education by 2020. As a result of various initiatives and action plans of the government, this rate has already increased to 14 percent.
Importance of technical education in Bangladesh
Highlighting the immense importance of technical education in Bangladesh, Dr. Niaz Ahmed, Professor, Department of Social Work, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, said, “Extensive technical education is needed to meet the demand of the country and export manpower abroad. Because our manpower is huge. If we can’t catch the outside market here, we will be in danger of falling behind.
We are still in the inefficient category in manpower export. Our risk is the garment industry. India and Vietnam are still behind us in garment-export, But the Government of India is going to give a huge incentive to the entrepreneurs of the country and the participants in this industry. In this, they are thinking of surpassing us. But we don’t think much about it. They are going to set up a welfare fund and arrange a provident fund for garment workers. There are special incentives for entrepreneurs engaged in this industry. What is the alternative if the garment industry collapses for any reason? Our situation in manpower export is not good now. Malaysia has been reluctant to take people again. There is no substitute for building a skilled workforce to reduce our dependence on our economy. ” Status of technical education in Bangladesh and comparative review with developed countries.
Meanwhile, the students of the technical education institution have made disappointing remarks. According to the complaint, technical students are lagging behind due to lack of skilled trainers, quality technical education, scarcity of higher education institutions, raw material crisis etc. According to technical board sources, about 75,000 students are admitted every year with the aim of becoming diploma engineers in technical education. At the end of the four-year course, students with a diploma in engineering have to earn a BSc degree for a good job. But there is only one government institution for students to get this degree. It is Dhaka University of Engineering and Technology, Gazipur.
Only 520 diploma engineers are admitted here for higher studies every academic year. An applicant can take the admission test three times in a row. In this case, the candidates have to fight with many more candidates. Although these admissions can apply for BSc in some departments of Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, they have to take part in the admission test with the students who have passed the higher secondary examination. Admission questions are also given from the college syllabus. Studying in private institutions is expensive.
Technical Education Board Chairman. Md. Mostafizur Rahman said
The government would create an additional 1 lakh diploma engineers through a project to increase the number of young people educated in technical education. However, in order to increase the rate of technical education, educationists including parents should come forward. He added that the main obstacles to the good employment of those educated in technical education are the lack of trained teachers and the lack of necessary equipment.
A review of the statistics shown in a report in the Daily Current newspaper on January 1, 2017 reveals a significant difference in the number of students educated in technical education in our country as compared to developed countries.
In the country, general education is viewed with the same importance as technical education. In many cases, financially indigent students want to pursue technical education, as technical education in our country is basically a technical and vocational education system. The rate of access to technical education is also significantly lower among the middle class. Many parents look down on it.
After passing SSC, most of the students are inclined towards general education. And the number of students who have passed the examination is less than the number of general education institutions in the country, as a result, even though all the students who have passed SSC are admitted in general education institutions, there are several lakh seats vacant. Due to the lack of proper policy of the government, about 50 percent of the approved seats in more than 400 private polytechnic institutes are going to be vacant. In that case, if the government makes 50% admission in technical education compulsory, then it is possible to see the light of hope.
Because unskilled certificate based education is a burden for the country and the nation. The increase in the number of educated unemployed tells us this. About 3 lakh highly educated youths are being added to the list of unemployed every year.
Although there are 6 education boards for general education in the country, there is only 1 education board for technical education. However, considering the need and modernity of technical education, the number of these education boards should be more than the general education board. Technical education started in Bangladesh in 1986. Contemporary to the countries mentioned above and earlier than many countries. While there are 36 government universities and 95 private universities in Bangladesh (according to the University Grants Commission), there are 49 government technical education institutions and 36 private ones.
Although there is no shortage of technical education institutes, many seats remain vacant every year. However, we know that Bangladesh is a country with huge population. Again, the number of highly educated unemployed is increasing every year. From then on, the distrust of the industry towards the education system of the country was revealed.
But in that case the kind vision of the government and the appropriate private sector is questionable. The proper role of entrepreneurs engaged in the industry is not very much here. In Germany, where students are earning about Rs 60,000 a month under the dual vocational program as well as being educated in technical education, students in our country are given a scholarship of Rs 600.
There is no substitute for technical education to transform a large population into manpower and skilled manpower. But it requires proper planning and streamlining of the education system.
Also read professional technical education